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Helminths

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Topic updated on 12/06/15 9:23pm

Microbiology Overview
 
 
Helminths Table
 
Tapeworms (Cestodes)
  Disease Treatment
Taenia solium (pork) Intestinal tapeworm
Cysticercosis (leads to brain cysts and seizures)
Praziquantel
Taenia saginata (beef) Intestinal tapeworm Praziquantel
Diphyllobothrium latum (fish) Intestinal tapeworm
B12 deficiency
Praziquantel
Echinococcus granulosus/multilocularis Hydatid cyst disease (liver cysts) -bendazoles
Flukes (Trematodes)
Schistosoma (snails) Schistosomiasis (eggs deposit throughout body, forming granulomas) → portal HTN, hematuria, bladder cancer
Praziquantel
Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver fluke) Clonorchiasis (biliary tract inflammation), cholangiosarcoma
Praziquantel
Paragoniums westermani (lung fluke) Mimics pulmonary TB (hemoptysis)
Praziquantel
Roundworms (Nematodes)
Transmitted by the ingestion of eggs ("EATT")
Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) Perianal pruritis -bendazoles
Pyrantel pamoate
Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm) GI and pulmonary symptoms -bendazoles
Pyrantel pamoate
Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) Diarrhea
Intestinal prolapse
-bendazoles
Toxocara canis Visceral larva migrans
Blindness
Albendazole +/- corticosteroids 
Transmitted by the invasion of larvae through skin ("SANd")
Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm) Diarrhea/vomiting
Anemia
Pneumonitis
-bendazoles
Ancylostoma braziliense/caninum Cutaneous larva migrans
Microcytic anemia
-bendazoles
Necator americanus (hookworm) Microcytic anemia
Pneumonitis
-bendazoles
Pyrantel pamoate
Transmitted by the ingestion of larvae
Trichinella spiralis Muscle inflammation
Periorbital edema
-bendazoles
Transmitted by arthropods
Wucheria bancrofti Elephantiasis Diethylcarbamazine
Loa loa (African eye worm) Eye pain, swelling Diethylcarbamazine
Onchocerca volvulus River blindness (blindness and lizard skin) Ivermectin
Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm) Skin inflammation and ulceration
Worm eruption from skin
Niridazole
 
Helminths Introduction
  • Helminths (Greek: "worms")
    • are usually macroscopic
    • have microscopic eggs
    • are multicellular
    • have a life cycle that involves stages in other organisms


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