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Vaccines

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Topic updated on 03/16/17 9:33am

 

 

Introduction
  • Live, attenuated vaccines
    • induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity
      • no booster needed
    • are relatively unstable
      • can rarely revert to virulent strains
      • dangerous to give to immunocompromised patients
  • Killed vaccines
    • induce only humoral immunity
    • are more stable
  • Recombinant vaccines
    • a harmless virus is engineered to produce an antigenic protein of the target virus
  • Toxoid vaccines
    • chemically modified toxins
  • Subunit vaccines
    • presents only the viral antigen to the host
    • made of capsular polysaccharides
    • used for many encapsulated bacteria ("SHiN")
    • promotes T-cell recognition and class switching
      • if T-cells were not stimulated, only IgM antibody would be produced
  • Routinely given in pregnancy
    • diphtheria
    • tetanus
    • influenza
    • hepatitis B
  • Live vaccines stimulate mucosal IgA production more strongly than killed vaccines 
Diseases
  • Live, attenuated vaccines
    • MMR
      • measles, mumps, and rubella
      • the only live, attenuated vaccine that can be given to HIV+ patients
    • Sabin polio
      • given orally
    • chicken pox (VZV)
    • smallpox
    • yellow fever
    • typhoid (oral)
    • rotavirus
    • Franciscella tularensis
    • influenza nasal spay
  • Killed (inactivated) vaccines
    • rabies
    • influenza injection
    • Salk polio
      • given as an injection
      • now the primary form of polio vaccination in U.S.
      • salK = Killed
    • HAV
    • Vibrio cholerae
    • Japanese encephalitis
  • Recombinant vaccines
    • HBV
      • HBsAg antigen
    • HPV
      • types 6, 11, 16, and 18
    • Borrelia burgdorferi
      • recombinant outer surface protein
  • Toxoid vaccines
    • tetanus
    • diphtheria
    • pertussis
  • Subunit vaccines
    • H. influenza
      • capsular polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid
    • N. meningitidis
    • Pneumococcal
      • adult version is NOT conjugated and does NOT stimulate a helper T cell response
      • the infant version IS conjugated and stimulates a helper T cell response
    • typhoid (injected)
  • Live, pathogenic vaccine
    • adenovirus
      • given in enteric-coated capsules


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Qbank (1 Questions)

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(M1.MC.74) Two patients are vaccinated for poliomyelitis. Patient A receives the Sabin oral vaccine, and Patient B receives the Salk intramuscular vaccine. Six weeks after their initial vaccinations, which of the following would be the greatest difference regarding these two patients? Topic Review Topic

1. Patient A has a higher level of duodenal IgA antibodies
2. Patient B has a higher level of duodenal IgA antibodies
3. Patient A has a lower level of serum IgA antibodies
4. Patient B has a lower level of serum IgM antibodies
5. Patient A has a higher level of serum IgG antibodies

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