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Microbiology of Osteomyelitis and Arthritis

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Topic updated on 03/14/15 7:05am

 
 Bugs Causing Osteomyelitis
Bug
Comments
S. aureus Most common overall; prosthesis and neonates
Assume S. aureus if no other information is given
Salmonella enteridis #1 in sickle cell anemia (#2 is E. coli)
P. aeruginosa Trauma (e.g. puncture wound to foot), diabetics, and drug addicts
Group A strep Common cause of hematogenous osteomyelitis (2nd to S. aureus)
N. gonorrhoeae STD can lead to osteomyelitis, although septic arthritis is more common
S. epidermidis Prosthesis
M. tuberculosis Vertebral osteomyelitis (Pott's disease)
Pasteurella multocida Animal bites/scratches
Group B strep Neonates
  • Infectious arthritis
    • most common cause in sexually active young adult is N. gonorrhoeae
    • most common cause in children and non-sexually active adults is S. aureus
  • Hematogenous osteomyelitis 
    • most commonly affects male children
    • affects metaphysis of long bones due to high vascularity
    • necrotic bone can become a reservoir of infection covered with new, poorly constructed bone if infection is not treated
    • in adults, vertebral body is most common location for hematogenous osteomyelitis
      • e.g. Pott's disease, due to hematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis


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