- Infections that cross the placenta ("ToRCHeS")
- Toxoplasma gondii
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
- HSV-2 is more common, although HSV-1 is also possible
- Signs in the fetus in ToRCHeS infections (nonspecific, common to multiple infections)
- poor feeding
- growth retardation
- hearing impairment
- mental retardation
Other infections that cross the placenta
- These infections can also cross the placenta
- coxsackie B virus
- B19 birus
- Zika virus
- Listeria monocytogenes
AVERAGE 3.0 of 3 RATINGS
Qbank (0 Questions)
Level of Evidence 5 and Other Journal Articles (includes Case Reports, Expert Opinions,
Personal Observations, and Biomechanic Studies)
Kaye A. Toxoplasmosis: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention in congenitally exposed infants. J Pediatr Health Care. 2011 Nov-Dec;25(6):355-64. Epub 2010 Jun 12. Review
PMID:22018426 (Link to Abstract)
Jones J, Lopez A, Wilson M. Congenital toxoplasmosis. Am Fam Physician. 2003 May 15;67(10):2131-8. Review.
PMID:12776962 (Link to Abstract)
- First Aid for the USMLE STEP 1. Le, Tao. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2013.
- Rapid Review Pathology Revised Reprint. Goljan, Edward. New York: Mosby, 2011.
- Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple 5th Ed. Gladwin, Mark. Miami: MedMaster Inc, 2011.
- medEssentials for the USMLE Step 1. Manley, Michael. New York: Kaplan Publishing, 2012.
- Katzung & Trevnor's Pharmacology Examination and Board Review. Trevor, Anthony. New York: Lange Medical Books, 2012.