questions 5

Aphasia

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Topic updated on 12/16/16 2:09pm

Overview

  • Definition
    • aphasia = inability of brain to generate motor commands needed for speech
    • dysarthria = inability of the muscles of speech to respond to brain's speech commands
  • Types
    • Broca's
      • motor deficit
      • nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehension
        • result of damage to Broca's area - inferior frontal gyrus
    • Wernicke's
      • sensory deficit
      • fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension and repetition
        • result of damage to Wernicke's area - superior temporal gyrus 
    • Global 
      • motor and sensory deficit
      • nonfluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
        • result of damage to both Broca's and Wernicke's areas affected
    • Conduction 
      • poor repetition but fluent speech and intact comprehension
        • result of damage to arcurate fasciculus
          • connects Broca's, Wernicke's areas
    • Transcortical motor
      • nonfluent aphasia with good comprehension and repetition
        • different from brocas in that repetition is preserved
    • Transcortical sensory
      • poor comprehension with fluent speech and repetition
        • different from wernicke's aphasia due to sparing of repetition
    • Mixed transcortical
      • nonfluent speech, poor comprehension, good repetition
        • Broca's and Wernicke's areas and arcuate fasiculus are not involved
        • the watershed areas are typically involved
          • causes include
            • acute occlusion of the left internal carotid occlusion
            • extended periods of hypoxia
            • complication of cerebral edema
 


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