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Visual Pathway

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Topic updated on 11/20/16 9:08am

Overview
  • Conscious vision perception
    • retina → optic nerve → optic chiasm → optic tract → lateral geniculate body → optic radiation to primary visual cortex
      • lower retinal field passes from lateral geniculate body → Meyer's loop (temporal lobe) → infra-calcarine area of primary visual cortex
      • upper retinal field pass from lateral geniculate body → Dorsal optic radiation (parietal lobe) → supra-calcarine area of primary visual cortex
  • Additional pathways
    • retina → optic nerve → optic chiasm → optic tract → pretectal area
      • light reflex
    • retina → optic nerve → optic chiasm → optic tract → superior collicus
      • reflex gaze
    • retina → optic nerve → optic chiasm → optic tract → suprachiasmatic nuclei
      • circadian rhythms
Common lesions 
  • Central scotoma
    • cause: macular degeneration
  • Right anopia
    • cause: central retinal artery/vein occlusion, optic neuritis
  • Bitemporal hemianopia
    • causepituitary adenoma, craniopharygioma
  • Left homonymous hemianopia
    • cause: internal carotid artery aneurism
  • Left upper quadrantic anopia
    • cause: right temporal lesion due to occlusion of MCA
  • Left lower quadrantic anopia
    • cause: right parietal lesion due to occlusion of MCA
  • Left hemianopia with macular sparing
    • cause: PCA occlusion
    • macula spare due to bilateral projection to occiput and collateral blood supply from MCA
Visual Fields Pathway


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