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Glomerular Filtration Barrier

Topic updated on 06/14/17 12:17pm

Overview
  • Glomerular Filtration Barrier
    • physical characteristics of glomerular capillary wall determine glomerular filtration rate(GFR) and characteristics of glomerular filtrate
  • Layers of Glomerular Capillary
    • Endothelium
      • endothelial cell layer has relatively large pores, or fenestrations (size barrier)
        • fenestrations permit filtration of fluid, dissolved solutes, and plasma proteins
        • fenestrations do not permit filtration of blood cells
    • Basement Membrane
      • basement membrane has 3 layers
        • lamina rara interna
        • lamina densa
        • lamina rara externa
      • basement membrane does not permit filtration of large solutes (proteins) (size barrier)
      • basement membrane has negatively charged glycoproteins, including heparan sulfate which repels negatively charged proteins (negative charge barrier)
        • positively charged solutes are attracted to negatively charged glycoproteins on basement membrane and are more readily filtered
        • negatively charged solutes (such as albumin) are repelled from negatively charged glycoproteins on basement membrane and are less readily filtered 
      • in nephrotic syndrome, basement membrane loses negative charge barrier
        • symptoms include albuminuriahypoproteinemiageneralized edema, andhyperlipidemia
    • Epithelium
      • epithelial cell layer has specialized cells called podocytes that are attached to basement membrane by foot processes
        • filtration slits, bridged by thin diaphragms, are between foot processes (size barrier)


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