questions 3

Acid-Base Disorders

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Topic updated on 06/14/17 2:29pm

Overview
 
Acid-Base Disorder
pH
PCO2
[HCO3-]
Compensatory response
Metabolic acidosis
Hyperventilation
Metabolic alkalosis 
Hypoventilation
Respiratory acidosis
↑ renal HCO3- reabsorption
Respiratory alkalosis
↓ renal HCO3- reabsorption

  • Hypophosphatemia can occur in metabolic acidosis as H2PO4 is excreted to increase titratable acids in the urine
Formulae
  • Hendersen-Hasselbalch equation
    • pH = pKa + log ([HCO3-]/(0.03 * PCO2
  • Winter's formula
    • calculates expected respiratory compensation in response to metabolic acidosis 
    • PCO2 = 1.5 (HCO3-) + 8 +/- 2
    • If actual PCO2 is higher than expected PCO2, patient also has a primary respiratory acidosis
    • If actual PCO2 is lower than expected PCO2, patient has a primary respiratory alkalosis
  • Calculation for metabolic alkalosis
    • PCO2 ↑ 0.7 mmHg for every ↑ 1 mEq/L HCO3-


  RATE CONTENT
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AVERAGE 5.0 of 2 RATINGS

Qbank (1 Questions)

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(M1.RL.11) A 52-year-old man with a history of type I diabetes mellitus presents to the emergency room with increasing fatigue. Two days ago, he ran out of insulin and has not had time to obtain a new prescription. He denies fevers or chills. His temperature is 37.2 degrees Celsius, blood pressure 84/56 mmHg, heart rate 100/min, respiratory rate 20/min, and SpO2 97% on room air. His physical exam is otherwise within normal limits. An arterial blood gas analysis shows the following:

pH 7.25, PCO2 29, PO2 95, HCO3- 15.

Which of the following acid-base disorders is present? Topic Review Topic

1. Metabolic acidosis with appropriate respiratory compensation
2. Respiratory acidosis with appropriate metabolic compensation
3. Mixed metabolic and respiratory acidosis
4. Metabolic alkalosis with appropriate respiratory compensation
5. Respiratory alkalosis with appropriate metabolic compensation

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
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