Standard Deviation vs. Standard Error |

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TAG

(M1.ST.62)
A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the relationship between LDL-C and the incidence of heart disease. The patients were selected at random. Results showed a 10-year relative risk (RR) of 2.30 for people with elevated LDL-C levels compared to individuals with normal LDL levels. The p value was 0.04. This study is most likely to have which of the following 95% confidence intervals?
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TAG

(M1.ST.62)
A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the relationship between LDL and the incidence of heart disease. The patients were selected at random. Results showed a 10-year relative risk (RR) of 3.0 for people with elevated LDL levels compared to individuals with normal LDL levels. The p-value was 0.04 with a 95% confidence interval of 2.0-4.0. According to the study results, what percent of heart disease in these patients can be attributed to elevated LDL?
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TAG

(M1.ST.70)
Confident of your performance on Step 1 given your extensive utilization of Medbullets, you preemptively start to ponder your future specialty choice. You come across an analysis of lifestyle factors and how they affect medical student specialty choices. Image A depicts two scatter plots comparing the relationship between median income and weekly work hours on the difficulty of matching into specific specialties. Both associations are statistically significant. Which statement best describes the results?
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FIGURES: A

1.
The harder the specialty is to match into, the higher the weekly work hours

2.
The easier the specialty is to match into, the higher the median income

3.
Weekly work hours has a stronger correlation with matching difficulty than median income

4.
Median income has a stronger correlation with matching difficulty than weekly work hours

5.
The higher the median income of a specialty the shorter the weekly work hours

2.

3.

4.

5.

TAG

(M1.ST.71)
A study comparing the efficacy of four different weight loss diets is conducted. The primary outcome is change in weight (in kilograms) after two years. Prior to the study, there was insufficient evidence to conclude that any of the diets were effective. Figure A reports the mean weight change and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each of the four diets. Which of the following diets would have a p value < 0.05?
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FIGURES: A

1.
Atkins diet

2.
Low fat diet

3.
Low carbohydrate diet

4.
Zone diet

5.
Both the Atkins and the low fat diets

2.

3.

4.

5.

TAG

(M1.ST.74)
A cross-sectional study is conducted investigating the effects of low salt diet on blood pressure. Five hundred patients identified as having a low salt diet and 500 patients identified as having a normal (control) diet were enrolled. All participants have their systolic blood pressure measured and the results are presented in Figure A. If the distribution of systolic blood pressure in each group is normal, what is the most appropriate test to determine whether patients on low salt diet have different systolic blood pressure than those on control diet?
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FIGURES: A

1.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

2.
One-sample t-test

3.
Two-sample t-test

4.
Paired t-test

5.
Chi Square test

2.

3.

4.

5.

TAG

(M1.ST.76)
You are conducting a systematic review on the effect of a new sulfonylurea for the treatment of type II diabetes. For your systematic review you would like to include 95% confidence intervals for the mean of blood glucose levels in the treatment groups. What further information is necessary to abstract from each of the original papers in order to calculate a 95% confidence interval for each study?
Review Topic

1.
Power, standard deviation, mean

2.
Power, mean, sample size

3.
Power, standard deviation, sample size

4.
Standard deviation, mean, sample size

5.
Standard deviation, mean, sample size, power

2.

3.

4.

5.

TAG

(M1.ST.78)
An investigator is measuring the blood calcium level in a sample of female cross country runners and a control group of sedentary females. If she would like to compare the means of the two groups, which statistical test should she use?
Review Topic

1.
t-test

2.
ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

3.
Linear regression

4.
Chi-square test

5.
F-test

2.

3.

4.

5.

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