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Congenital Pyloric Stenosis

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Topic updated on 04/13/17 11:22pm

Snapshot
  • An anxious young married couple presents to the ED with their 3-week-old firstborn. They report that the child was feeding well for the first two weeks after delivery but over the past few days he has taken less breast milk. Two days ago he experienced projectile vomiting after every meal. The mom and dad are concerned that he might have the stomach flu.
Introduction
  • A congenital stenosis of the pyloric sphincter
    • not present at birth but develops in 1st month
    • deficiency in NO syntase results in inability to relax sphincter muscles
  • May be aquired in adult cases with stricture following chronic ulcer disease
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • projectile vomitting
      • vomitus does not contain bile
  • Physical exam
    • palpable "olive" in epigastrium
    • hyperperstalsis
Evaluation
  • Ultrasound is diagnostic
Treatment
  • Medical management
    • IV fluid resuscitation
    • electrolyte management/optimization pre-operatively (specifically Cl > 100)
  • Surgical 
    • pyloromyotomy, open or laparoscopic


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