- the cerebral cortex contains eminences (termed gyri) and spaces separating these eminences (termed sulci)
- sulci include
- lateral (Sylvian) fissure
- separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobe
- central sulcus
- separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
- note that anterior to this sulci is the precentral gyrus and posterior to the this sulci is the postcentral gyrus
- the precentral gyrus is the primary motor cortex
- the postcentral gyrus is the primary somatosensory cortex
- parieto-occipital sulcus
- which separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe and can best be seen medially
- calcarine sulcus
- which separates the cuneus from the lingual gyrus
- the lobes of the cerebral cortex includes
- frontal lobe
- primary motor cortex and premotor cortex are involved in
- Broca's area is involved in
- frontal eye fields are involved in
- prefrontal cortex is involved (this is a simplification) in
- parietal lobe
- primary somatosensory cortex is involved in
- receiving contralateral sensory information
- Wernicke's area is involved in
- temporal lobe
- primary auditory cortex is involved in
- occipital lobe
- visual and visual association cortex is essential for
- receiving and recognizing visual stimuli
- Blood supply
- the brain receives blood from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries
- anastomoses of the internal carotid arteries and basilar artery results in the formation of the
- the blood supply will be simplified as follows
- middle cerebral artery
- supplies blood to most of the lateral surface of the brain as well as the
- posterior limb and genu of the internal capsule
- anterior cerebral artery
- supplies the medial surface of the parietal and frontal lobe as well as the
- anterior limb of the internal capsule
- posterior cerebral artery
- supplies the occipital lobes
AVERAGE 4.0 of 3 RATINGS
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Level of Evidence 5 and Other Journal Articles (includes Case Reports, Expert Opinions,
Personal Observations, and Biomechanic Studies)
Simmons BB, Hartmann B, Dejoseph D. Evaluation of suspected dementia. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Oct 15;84(8):895-902. Review. PubMed PMID: 22010769.
PMID:22010769 (Link to Abstract)
Hanna-Pladdy B. Dysexecutive syndromes in neurologic disease. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2007 Sep;31(3):119-27. Review. PubMed PMID: 18025957.
PMID:18025957 (Link to Abstract)
- First Aid for the USMLE STEP 1. Le, Tao. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2013.
- Rapid Review Pathology Revised Reprint. Goljan, Edward. New York: Mosby, 2011.
- Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple 5th Ed. Gladwin, Mark. Miami: MedMaster Inc, 2011.
- medEssentials for the USMLE Step 1. Manley, Michael. New York: Kaplan Publishing, 2012.
- Katzung & Trevnor's Pharmacology Examination and Board Review. Trevor, Anthony. New York: Lange Medical Books, 2012.