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Benign Bone Tumors

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Topic updated on 09/11/17 11:48am

Overview
benign 
Osteoma
  • Introduction
    • arises on surface (cortical region) of existing bone
      • often in the skull
    • associated conditions
      • Gardner's syndrome (FAP) (LINK)
Osteoid osteoma
  • Introduction
    • neoplastic osteoblasts surrounded by a rim of reactive interlacing trabeculae
      • < 2 cm
      • smaller than an osteoblastoma
    • develops in the cortex of the proximal tibia and femur
    • most common in men < 25 years
  • Presentation
    • bone pain that resolves with aspirin
  • Evaluation
    • imaging
      • bony mass with radiolucent core
Osteoblastoma
  • Introduction
    • similar morphologically to osteoid osteoma but larger
    • most commonly located in vertebral column
  • Symptoms
    • bone pain that does NOT resolve with aspirin
Giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma)
  • Introduction
    • occurs most commonly at epiphyseal end of long bones
    • locally aggressive but benign
    • seen in 2nd - 4th decade
    • most common location is distal femur/proximal tibia
  • Evaluation
    • Radiograph
      • characteristic "double bubble" or "soap bubble" appearance
        • increased activity of osteoclasts results in a cavitary lesion 
    • histology
      • spindle-shaped cells
      • multinucleated giant cells
        • hence name
Osteochondroma (exostosis)
  • Introduction
    • most common benign bone tumor
    • contains both bone and a cartilage cap
      • arises from lateral projection of growth plate
    • most common in men < 25 years
    • seen in long bone metaphysis
  • Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
    • may transform to malignant chondrosarcoma (rare)
Enchondroma
  • Introduction
    • cartilaginous neoplasm
    • found in intramedullary bone
    • seen in distal extremities
      • compared to chondrosarcoma which typically involves central skeleton


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